萬聖節習俗:為什麼萬聖節要吃糖果?(雙語)

tina在美國 發佈 2020-03-28T11:36:23+00:00

Today,it's hard to imagine Halloween without Skittles, chocolate bars, and the perennial candy corn debates. But when you're digging throu

西方人過萬聖節,家家戶戶都要給孩子們準備好充足的糖果,否則可能就要承受搗蛋鬼的惡作劇。為什麼不是蛋糕、南瓜餅,而是糖果呢?為什麼小孩子要在萬聖節挨家挨戶地討糖果吃呢?這要從兩千多年前的一個節日說起。On October 31, hordes of children armed with Jack-o'-lantern-shaped buckets and pillow cases will take to the streets in search of sugar. Trick-or-treating for candy is synonymous with Halloween, but the tradition had to go through a centuries-long evolution to arrive at the place it is today. So how did the holiday become an opportunity for kids to get free sweets? You can blame pagans, Catholics, and candy companies.

  10月31日,成群的孩子們會涌到大街上,帶著南瓜形狀的籃子和枕套找糖吃。作為萬聖節的代名詞,「不給糖就搗蛋」這一傳統經歷了數百年才演變成今天這個樣子。那麼這個節日是怎麼變成孩子們獲得免費糖果的機會呢?你可以將其歸咎於異教徒、天主教徒和糖果公司。

  Historians agree that a Celtic autumn festival called Samhain was the precursor to modern Halloween. Samhain was a time to celebrate the last harvest of the year and the approach of the winter season. It was also a festival for honoring the dead. One way Celtics may have appeased the spirits they believed still walked the Earth was by leaving treats on their doorsteps.

  歷史學家們一致認為,凱爾特人慶祝秋收的薩溫節是現代萬聖節的前身。薩溫節是慶祝一年中最後一次收穫的時節,也是迎接冬天到來的節日。薩溫節還是紀念死者的節日。凱爾特人安撫那些依然在世間徘徊的幽靈的方式之一可能就是在自己的門口留下吃食。

  precursor[priˈkɜːrsər]: n. 先驅,前導

  appease[əˈpiːz]: v. 使滿足;安撫,安慰

  When Catholics infiltrated Ireland in the 1st century CE, they rebranded many pagan holidays to fit their religion. November 1 became the 「feasts of All Saints and All Souls," and the day before it was dubbed "All-Hallows'-Eve." The new holidays looked a lot different from the original Celtic festival, but many traditions stuck around, including the practice of honoring the dead with food. The food of choice for Christians became "soul cakes," small pastries usually baked with expensive ingredients and spices like currants and saffron.

  公元1世紀天主教徒入侵愛爾蘭時,開始改造許多異教徒的節日,使其適應他們的宗教。11月1日成了萬靈節,萬靈節前夕被稱為「萬聖節前夜」。這一新節日和凱爾特人原來的節日大不相同,但凱爾特人的許多傳統保留了下來,包括用食物來紀念逝者的行為。基督教徒選擇的節日食物被叫作「靈魂蛋糕」,這是一種用昂貴的配料和紅醋栗、藏紅花等調料烤成的小點心。

  Instead of leaving them outside for passing ghosts, soul cakes were distributed to beggars who went door-to-door promising to pray for souls of the deceased in exchange for something to eat. Sometimes they wore costumes to honor the saints—something pagans originally did to avoid being harassed by evil spirits. The ritual, known as souling, is believed to have planted the seeds for modern-day trick-or-treating.

  基督教徒沒有把「靈魂蛋糕」放在門口供鬼魂享用,而是分發給挨家挨戶乞討的人,這些乞丐承諾為逝者的靈魂禱告,以換取吃食。有時候乞丐們還會穿上紀念聖人的戲服——最初異教徒就是穿上這種服裝來避免被惡靈糾纏。據認為,這一名為「索靈」的儀式為現代的「不給糖就搗蛋」埋下了種子。

Souling didn't survive the holiday's migration from Europe to the United States. In America, the first Halloween celebrations were a way to mark the end-of-year harvest season, and the food that was served mainly consisted of homemade seasonal treats like caramel apples and mixed nuts. There were no soul cakes—or candies, for that matter—to be found.

  在歐洲的節日向美國遷徙時,「索靈」風俗沒有留存下來。在美國,最初的萬聖節慶祝活動是為了紀念歲末的收穫季節,節日食物主要是自製的應季美食,比如焦糖蘋果和什錦堅果。那時候萬聖節沒有靈魂蛋糕,也沒有糖果。

  It wasn't until the 1950s that trick-or-treating gained popularity in the US. Following the Great Depression and World War II, the suburbs were booming, and people were looking for excuses to have fun and get to know their neighbors. The old practice of souling was resurrected and made into an excuse for kids to dress up in costumes and roam their neighborhoods. Common trick-or-treat offerings included nuts, coins, and homemade baked goods ("treats" that most kids would turn their noses up at today).

  直到20世紀50年代,「不給糖就搗蛋」才在美國風靡起來。大蕭條和二戰結束後,美國郊區開始繁榮起來,人們想找個由頭樂一樂並結識鄰居。於是,「索靈」的老習俗就復興了,並讓孩子們有藉口化裝打扮,在街區遊蕩。給「搗蛋鬼」準備的東西通常包括堅果、硬幣和自製的烘焙食品,今天的大多數孩子恐怕都看不上這些東西。

  turn one's nose up at: 對……嗤之以鼻

  That changed when the candy companies got their hands on the holiday. They had already convinced consumers that they needed candy on Christmas and Easter, and they were looking for an equally lucrative opportunity to market candy in the fall. The new practice of trick-or-treating was almost too good to be true. Manufacturers downsized candies into smaller, bite-sized packages and began marketing them as treats for Halloween. Adults were grateful to have a convenient alternative to baking, kids loved the sweet treats, and the candy companies made billions.

  後來糖果公司把手伸向了這一節日,情況就發生了改變。糖果商已經讓消費者相信,他們需要在聖誕節和復活節吃糖果,於是他們開始尋找一個在秋天營銷糖果的同樣有利可圖的良機。「不給糖就搗蛋」的新風俗對他們而言簡直是天賜的好運。製造商縮小了糖果包裝,將一口一個的小糖果獨立包裝,並將其作為萬聖節款待食品來推銷。成年人很慶幸可以買到這麼方便的零食而不用再親手烘焙,孩子們喜歡這些糖果的味道,糖果公司也因此大賺特賺。

  Today, it's hard to imagine Halloween without Skittles, chocolate bars, and the perennial candy corn debates. But when you're digging through a bag or bowl of Halloween candy this October, remember that you could have been having eating soul cakes instead.

  時至今日,已經難以想像沒有彩虹糖、巧克力棒和長年備受爭議的玉米糖的萬聖節。但是今年十月,當你捧著一袋或一碗萬聖節糖果大吃的時候,別忘了你原本可能吃的是「靈魂蛋糕」。

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