廣州金融威水史 | 這裡竟有一條「華爾街」?Canton's proud history of modern finance

fans news 發佈 2021-12-19T19:32:16+00:00

廣州作為千年商都,金融歷史文化底蘊深厚。近現代中國的金融制度、金融機構、金融工具等,大多發端於廣州。

廣州作為千年商都,金融歷史文化底蘊深厚。近現代中國的金融制度、金融機構、金融工具等,大多發端於廣州。

Guangzhou, a city enjoying continuous economic prosperity for thousands of years, is the cradle of finance in modern and contemporary China. Many of today's financial systems, institutions and instruments first appeared in Guangzhou before expanding to other parts of the country.

中國保險業與銀行業的發源地

清中期,隨著海上貿易的繁榮,貨物倉儲和運輸量不斷增加,水、火災害時有發生,商人們需要通過保險來分散風險。嘉慶六年(1801年),廣州最早出現由外國商人聯合達成的臨時保險協議,規定對每艘船載貨物承保限額為1.2萬美元,但此時尚未出現任何形式的保險機構。

Back in the mid-Qing Dynasty, there had been increasingly frequent trade exchanges between China and western countries along the ancient Maritime Silk Road.

Guangzhou, known as Canton at that time, handled an overwhelming amount of cargo at ports every year, which was especially vulnerable to fire and flood hazards. Merchants started to look for insurance to cover the loss of or damage to the goods.

In 1801, several foreign trading firms in Canton reached a temporary agreement to offer compensation of up to 12,000 dollars to cargo on one ship in case of any damage or loss. The agreement was the first of its kind in China and marked the emergence of insurance in the country.

清代繁盛的廣州碼頭 A bustling wharf in Canton, the Qing Dynasty

嘉慶十年,由幾家洋行合股組成的諫當保安行 (Canton Insurance Society)在廣州成立,標誌著中國保險業的誕生。這是外商在中國開設的第一家保險公司,由英商寶順洋行和怡和洋行輪流擔任經理。

Four years later, Canton saw the establishment of the Canton Insurance Society, the first foreign-owned insurance company in China. Professional insurance service was officially introduced to the Chinese market.

The Society was managed by two British trading firms, namely the Dent & Co. and Jardine Matheson & Co., in turns.

道光二十五年(1845年),英國麗如銀行在香港設立分行,在廣州設立分理處,成為最早進入中國的外國金融資本

It was also from Canton that the banking industry developed in China. In 1845, the Oriental Bank Corporation, a British imperial bank, opened a branch in Hong Kong and an office in Canton, which became the earliest foreign bank to enter China. It was also the first commercial bank ever set up in China.

麗如銀行在廣州主要辦理英國—印度—中國三角貿易的匯兌業務。1884年,麗如銀行因在錫蘭投資失敗,損失嚴重而撤出中國,其在中國的地位也被後來的滙豐銀行所取代。

The bank's office in Canton was specialized in exchange business to facilitate trade among Britain, India and China at that time.

The bank expanded its operations rapidly to other Chinese cities but had to pull out of China in 1884 because of severe losses due to poor investment. Once a key player in China's capital market, the Oriental Bank was later replaced by the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC).

CURRENCY

·中國最早的機械鑄幣廠·

清政府實施「一口通商」政策後,只保留粵海關負責管理對外貿易,大量外國銀元流入廣州。

For decades, Canton was the only port open to foreign trade during the Qing Dynasty. Foreign currencies flocked into China through Canton, which quickly held a dominant position in circulation.

為抵制外國貨幣的侵略,光緒十三年(1887),時任兩廣總督張之洞奏請朝廷,提議在廣東建立造幣廠,生產本國銀元。

To curb the flood of foreign coins in the market, Zhang Zhidong, the then governor of Guangdong and Guangxi, proposed to the Imperial Court in 1887 to build the first modern mint in Guangdong to produce domestic coins.

廣東造幣廠 China's first modern mint was built in Canton in 1887.

獲得朝廷許可後,張之洞選址廣州大東門外黃華鄉(今黃華路)動工興建中國歷史上第一個機械鑄錢廠,定名廣東錢局,並引進當時先進的英國鑄幣機器。1889年,廣東造幣廠開爐鑄錢。

Zhang's proposal was soon approved. And the mint, named Guangdong Money Bureau, was built at Huanghua Village outside the East Gate of Canton city (now Huanghua Lu in Yuexiu district). It began operation in 1889 and introduced advanced British coinage machines for production.

廣州造光緒通寶是中國最早鑄造的機器銅錢 Guangxu Tongbao, China's first machine-made copper coin cast in Canton

廣州造七二正版龍洋是中國最早鑄造並流通的機器銀元 China's first machine-made silver coin cast in Canton, with a dragon design on the reverse

銀錢堆滿濠畔街

貿易的繁榮也帶動了典當、票號、銀號等行業的昌盛,為解決當時民間融資需求發揮了重要作用。

The booming trade activities in Canton also fueled the growth of traditional financing institutions such as pawnshops, exchange shops and old-style private banks.

廣州城南有條濠畔街(今屬越秀區大德路南側,東接解放南路,西至人民南路區域),自宋代至清代都是海內外珍奇雜貨的交易場所。這裡曾聚集著大批外省商幫、會館,銀局票號數不勝數。

Haopan Jie (Street), located to the south of Canton city, had been a famous marketplace since the Song Dynasty (960-1279AD), where one could find all kinds of novel products from home and abroad. Merchant groups from across the country were attracted by the business environment there and set up an array of merchant houses, guild halls, shops and banks on the street.

一張票據就能代替沉甸甸的銀錠 A draft issued at a bank in Canton, the Qing Dynasty

Bank draft was a convenient and secure instrument which saved the efforts of transporting heavy silver ingots.

尤其是清代,勢力雄厚的山西商人在濠畔街設立的票號就多達數十家,主要辦理居民商戶的存貸款,還承辦官府餉銀的匯兌,銀錢往來十分巨額,一年大概需匯兌白銀七十萬到一百萬兩。濠畔街成為盛極一時的廣州金融中心,說是那個年代的廣州「華爾街」也不為過。

During the Qing Dynasty, Shanxi merchants from northern China almost took over the street with dozens of draft banks they owned, which received deposits from and offered loans to individuals and enterprises as well as provided exclusive exchange services to the government.

At that time, Canton handed over tons of silver as official funds to the Court every year, with an average value between 700,000 and one million liang (tael). The silver was often exchanged for drafts at the banks on Haopan Jie for easier transportation.

The ubiquity of various types of financial institutions and their huge transaction volume made Haopan Jie the 'Wall Street' of Canton and the financial center of the city.

清中葉至民國,廣州的典當業也相當興盛,有「當鋪多過米鋪」的說法。民國二十三年(1934)廣東的當鋪多達1276家,廣州就有525家。

From the mid-Qing Dynasty to the era of the Republic of China (1912-1949), Canton's pawnbroking industry reached its heyday. The city was claimed to have more pawnshops than rice stores during the period.

In 1934 alone, the number of pawnshops in Guangdong hit 1,276, 525 of which were located in Canton.

清代典當、錢莊林立的廣州街道 Financial institutions of various types were everywhere on the streets of Canton in the Qing Dynasty.

近代廣州還擁有544家銀號,數量居全國第一。銀號跟票號功能相仿。主要經營存款、貸款、匯兌等資金融通調撥業務,規模大的銀號還發行銀票。

Canton also boasted more than 500 old-style private banks in the modern era, the most in the country. Such banks offered many of the same services as draft banks. Some large private banks would even issue bank notes.

千年商都,財氣匯聚。「金融」二字一直流淌在廣州的血液中。時至今日,廣州金融業一直保持著高質量的發展,綜合實力位居全國前列,將繼續創造更多的輝煌。

Over the past centuries, Canton had been influential in pooling capital and spurring economic growth. Finance is deeply rooted in the city's DNA. Today, Guangzhou maintains its edge and remains at the forefront of pursuing high-quality development of finance.

關鍵字:

受夠了「假裝」頭髮有份量 不靠燙髮.撒髮粉的秘密武器

2021-10-04T07:55:47.431431+00:00

針對 熟齡虛髮 脆弱髮質 孕中孕後